Bickerton added that Massachusetts has calculated that it takes an average of 130 to 160 hours to complete one grade level equivalent or student performance level (see SMARTT ABE [April 29, 2002]). These issues of practicality or feasibility are of particular concern in the development and use of performance assessments in adult education. However, there is a cost for this in terms of the expense of developing and scoring the assessment, the amount of testing time required, and lower levels of reliability. All test takers need to be given equal opportunity to prepare for and familiarize themselves with the assessment and assessment procedures. Many are also working at jobs where they are exposed to materials in English and required to process both written language and numerical information in English. The development of high-quality performance standards first requires the delineation of the relevant dimensions of performance quality. Thus, in any specific assessment situation, there are inevitable trade-offs in allocating resources so as to optimize the desired balance among the qualities. Quality of Work. These standards are concerned directly with the parts that make up the product. Evaluating the reliability of a given assessment requires development of a plan that identifies and addresses the specific issues of most concern. There are a number of benefits, however, in summary they provide the basis for informed decisions to be made in the initial provision and then subsequent maintainance and managment of outdoor, especially turf, facilities. Typically, the evaluation of reliability in performance assessments aims to answer five distinct but interrelated questions: What reliability issues are of concern in this assessment? In either case, decisions based on these group average scores may be in error. Good Performance Poor Performance Quality of Work Accurate, neat, attentive to detail, consistent, thorough, high standards, follows procedures. Quantitative personnel standards: The worker morale and dedication can be measured to some degree by some quantitative standards. Second, if the adult education classes included students who were randomly selected rather than people who had chosen to take the classes, there would be major consequences for the ways in which the adult education classes were taught. As a result, the program would receive no credit for its students’ impressive gains in reading. A reliable assessment is also one that is relatively free of measurement error. Meeting the organization's requirements, which ensures compliance with regulations and provision o… Additional studies to cross-validate these predictions are necessary if they are to be used with other groups of examinees because the relationships can change over time or in response to policy and instruction. In the context of adult literacy, where there are extreme variations in the amount of time individual students attend class (e.g., 31 hours per student per year in the 10 states with the lowest average and up to 106 hours per student among the 10 states with the highest average), the fairness of using assessments that assume attendance over a full course of study becomes a crucial question. Note that, an quality of work review phrase can be positive or negative and your performance review can be effective or bad/poor activity for your staffs. Evidence based on relations to other variables. When the estimates of reliability are not sufficient to support a particular inference of score use, this may be due to a number of factors. The specific purposes for which the assessment is intended will determine the particular validation argument that is framed and the claims about score-based inferences and uses that are made in this argument. For the purpose of accountability, the primary unit of analysis is likely to be larger (the class, the program, or the state). An ordinal scale groups people into categories, and Braun cautioned that when this happens, there is always the possibility that some people will be grouped unfairly and others will be given an advantage by the grouping. He noted that the limited hours that many ABE students attend class have a direct impact on the practicality of obtaining the desired gains in scores for a population that is unlikely to persist long enough to be posttested and, even if they do, are unlikely to show a gain as measured by the NRS. Unlike statistical moderation, the basis for linking is the judgment of ex-. This chapter highlights the purposes of assessment and the uses of assessment results that Pamela Moss presented in her overview of the Standards. Assessments designed for this purpose need to be sensitive, not to individual differences among students but to differences in aggregate student achievement across groups of students (as measured by average achievement or by percentages of students scoring above some level). Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Validity is a quality of the ways in which scores are interpreted and used; it is not a quality of the assessment itself. Quality standards are defined as documents that provide requirements, specifications, guidelines, or characteristics that can be used consistently to ensure that materials, products, processes, and services are fit for their purpose. will be averaged out across students. A limitation of projection is that the predictions that are obtained are highly dependent on the specific contexts and groups on which they are based. Walker Avenue, Wolverton Mill East, Standards for educational achievement have been developed that delineate the values and desired outcomes of educational programs in ways that are both transparent to stakeholders and provide guidance for curriculum development, instruction, and assessment. But these particular tasks are not generally useful to external evaluators who want to make comparisons across districts or state programs. Three types of claims can be articulated in a validation argument. No single type of evidence will be sufficient. Thus, it is difficult to know the extent to which observed gain scores are due to the program rather than to various environmental factors. Social moderation replaces the statistical and measurement requirements of the previous approaches with consensus among experts on common standards and on exemplars of performance. Background On November 2, 2011, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) finalized new While classroom instructional assessment is important in adult literacy programs, the primary concern of this workshop was with the development. When the indicators are gathered at some future time after the test, this provides evidence of predictive validity. In these cases, specific accommodations, or modifications in the standardized assessment procedures, may result in more useful assessments. How reliable should scores from this assessment be? This is because the reliability of the change scores will be highest when the correlation between the pretest and posttest scores is lowest. The resulting links (e.g., that a score of a on test A is roughly comparable to a score of b on test B) are only valid for making very general comparisons. Ensuring a realistic initial cost of provision and subsequent maintenance cost is provided to developers. Alternatively, what is the cost of closing down a program that is, in fact, achieving its objectives, but, according to assessment standards, appears not to be? Value for money is provided to both users and operators. Material Standards. Braun explained that the fundamental problem is that there are a number of factors in the students’ environment, other than the program itself, which might contribute to their gains on assessments. 1. Providing the basis for a sound and cost-effective maintenance programme. The level of reliability needed for any assessment will depend on two factors: the importance of the decisions to be made and the unit of analysis. Three problematic issues need to be considered with respect to this conception of fairness. More relevant to this report is the use of social moderation to verify samples of student performances at various levels in the education system (school, district, state) and to provide an audit function for accountability. Preface The purpose of this Quality and Performance document is to provide a design standard and level of quality for building systems and materials to be incorporated into new school facilities funded by the School Building Authority (SBA The four qualities that were highlighted by Moss and others at the workshop are discussed in general terms and then with reference to performance assessment in adult education. Although a student might make excellent gains in one area, if he or she makes less impressive gains in the area that was lowest at intake, the student cannot increase a functioning level according to the DOEd guidelines (2001a). to achieve these standards. The second area of concern is the reliability of the decisions that will be made on the basis of the assessment results. Bias may be associated with the inappropriate selection of test content; for example, the content of the assessment may favor students with prior knowledge or may not be representative of the curricular framework upon which it is based (Cole and Moss, 1993; NRC, 1999b). A reliable assessment is one that is consistent across these different facets of measurement. However, discussion at the workshop focused on the ways in which these quality standards apply to, and are prioritized in, performance assessment, particularly in the context of adult education. The Standards are organized into 5 areas of practice with 17 standards, each with minimum and high quality indicators and implementation examples: Family Centeredness Working with a family-centered approach that values and recognizes families as integral to the Program. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) publishes International Standards which ensure that products and services are safe, reliable and of good quality. Finally, the reporting of assessment results needs to be accurate and informative, and treated confidentially, for all test takers. Third, claims about the consequences of test use include an argument that the intended consequences of test use actually occur and that possible unintended or unfavorable consequences do not occur. Performance standards explain how well a job should be done. The approach is often used to align students’ ratings on performance assessment tasks. False negative classification errors occur when a student or program has been mistakenly classified as not having satisfied a given level of achievement. Most students who are English-language learners are living in an environment in which they are surrounded by English. quality measurement performance standards, pay for reporting and pay for performance, for Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) participating in the Medicare Shared Savings Program (Shared Savings Program) in 2012. Test publishers should not wait to determine how well assessments meet these quality standards until after they are in use. Sometimes tests designed for different grade levels are calibrated to a common scale, a process referred to as vertical equating. In addition to these general validity considerations, a number of specific concerns arise in the context of accountability assessment in adult education: (1) the comparability of assessments across programs and states, (2) the relative insensitivity of the reporting scales of the NRS to small gains, and (3) difficulties in interpreting gain scores. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Considerable resources need to be expended to collect evidence to support claims of high reliability for these assessments. The Standards provide guidance for the development and use of assessments in general. Engineering Standards. of useful performance assessments for the purpose of accountability across programs and across states because that is what the National Reporting System (NRS) requires. Developed by the Practice Improvement and Performance Measurement Action Group (PIPMAG), contributors included representatives from other professional societies and addiction-related federal agencies, in addition to individuals with significant experience in medical quality activities, performance standards development, and performance measurement. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. For additional information on reliability, the reader is referred to Brennan (2001), Feldt and Brennan (1993), National Research Council (NRC) (1999b), Popham (2000), and Thorndike and Hagen (1977). Ready to take your reading offline? View our suggested citation for this chapter. These states often have long waiting lists, e.g., nine months to two years for ESOL classes in larger cities in Massachusetts. Differences in the priorities placed on the various quality standards will be reflected in the amounts and kinds of resources that are needed. . On-site training courses can also be tailored to meet your specific needs. Moderation is the process for aligning scores from two different assessments. If performance assessments are to be used to make comparisons across programs and states, these assessments must themselves be comparable. The descriptions below draw especially on the presentation by Wendy Yen and are further described in Linn (1993), Mislevy (1992), and NRC (1999c). The statistical procedure for projection is regression analysis. These approaches include calculating reliability coefficients and standard errors of measurement based on classical test theory (e.g., test-retest, parallel forms, internal consistency), calculating generalizability and dependability coefficients based on generalizability theory (Brennan, 1983; Shavelson and Webb, 1991), calculating the criterion-referenced dependability and agreement indices (Crocker and Algina, 1986), and estimating information functions and standard errors based on item response theory (Hambleton, Swaminathan, and Rogers, 1991). Registered in England & Wales No: 553036VAT Registration No: 209 9781 25, Performance Quality Standards: A Brief Introduction. Those receiving adult education services have diverse reasons for seeking additional education. There is no expectation that the content or constructs assessed on the two tests are similar, and the tests may have different levels of reliability. Improve the technical knowledge of turf managers. Calibration is commonly used in several situations. Hence, relatively few resources need to be expended in collecting reliability evidence for a low-stakes assessment. ; Health and safety standards to help reduce accidents in the workplace. poses, two of which—accountability and instruction—are particularly relevant to this report. Helping to encourage innovation and progression in the turf maintenance industry. Validity is defined in the Standards as “the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores entailed by proposed uses of tests” (AERA et al., 1999:9). In many performance assessments, the considerable variety of tasks that are presented make inconsistencies across tasks a potential source of measurement error (Brennan and Johnson, 1995; NRC, 1997). 30-Day Mortality Measures Baseline Period: July 1, 2012-June 30, 2015 Performance Period: July 1, 2017- June 30, 2020 Second, claims about intended uses are twofold: they include the claim about construct validity and they argue that the construct or ability is relevant to the intended purpose, and that the assessment is useful for this purpose. If there is strong evidence that the assessment is free of bias and that all test takers have been given fair treatment in the assessment process, then conditions for fairness have been met. Having clearly defined objectives that can be achieved. Being used to confirm and substantiate that facilities are fit for purpose and that they contribute to compliance with relevant Health and Safety requirements. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Bickerton noted that it could take up to double the 150 hours mentioned above to complete one NRS level for students who, on average, are receiving instruction for a total of just 66 to 86 hours (DOEd, 2001c). For more information about Performance Quality Standards please contact The Institute of Groundsmanship. The following types of measures must be included in performance standards to ensure adequate performance assessment: quantity, quality, timeliness, cost effectiveness and/or manner of performance. John Comings said his research indicated that for a student to achieve a 75 percent likelihood of making a one grade level equivalent or one student performance level gain, he or she would have to receive 150 hours of instruction (Comings, Sum, and Uvin, 2000). The effectiveness of adult education programs is evaluated in terms of the percentages of students whose scores increase at least one NRS level from pretest to posttest. Because these errors of measurement are not equally large across the score distribution (i.e., at every score level), the decisions that are based at the cut scores on different scales may differ in their reliability. Evidence that the test content is relevant to and representative of the content domain to be assessed can be collected through expert judgments and through logical and empirical analyses of assessment tasks and products. Evidence that the assessment task engages the processes entailed in the construct can be collected by observing test takers take assessment tasks and questioning them about the processes or strategies they employed while performing the assessment task, or by various kinds of electronic monitoring of test-taking performance. What are the potential sources and kinds of error in this assessment? These classification errors have costs associated with them, but the costs may not be the same for false negative errors and false positive errors (Anastasi, 1988; NRC, 2001b). If the groups do not adequately represent the population, the group average scores may be biased. For an approach to framing a validation argument for language tests, see Bachman and Palmer (1996). Milton Keynes, MK12 5TW, © Copyright 2020. Again, procedures are described in standard measurement texts. The reliability of these average scores will generally be better than that of individual scores because the errors of measurement. perts, common standards, and exemplars of performance that are aligned to these standards. The Standards discusses four aspects of fairness: (1) lack of bias, (2) equitable treatment in the testing process, (3) equality in outcomes of testing, and (4) opportunity to learn (AERA et al., 1999:74-76). In addition, although many students may make important gains in terms of their own individual learning goals, these gains may not move them from one NRS level to the next, and so they would be recorded as having made no gain. The tests measure the same content and skills but do so with different levels of accuracy and different reliability. The reader is referred to Anastasi (1988), Crocker and Algina (1986), and NRC (1999b) for additional discussion on the reliability of decisions based on test scores. One set of factors has to do with the size and nature of the group of individuals on which the reliability estimates are based. If some test takers have not had an adequate opportunity to learn these instructional objectives, they are likely to get low scores. Braun raised another complicating issue: The NRS educational functioning levels are not unidimensional but are defined in terms of many skill areas (literacy, reading, writing, numeracy, functional and workplace). Other Considerations when Establishing Performance Standards The measures should be motivational. In most educational settings, there are two major reliability issues of concern. The training of raters may have an additional benefit—it may tie in with professional development for teachers in adult education programs. The NRS defines six ABE levels and six ESOL levels. Equating is carried out routinely for new versions of large-scale standardized assessments. Collect and report quality measure data to AQI NACOR. Reliability is defined in the Standards (AERA et al., 1999:25) as “the consistency of . In departments where more than one person does the same task or function, standards may be written for the parts of the jobs that are the same and applied to all positions doing that task or function. Time resources are the time that is available for the design, development, pilot testing, and other aspects of assessment development; assessment time (time available to administer the assessment); and scoring and reporting time. However, some aspects of the assessment may pose a particular challenge to some groups of test takers, such as those with a disability or those whose native language is not English. 5 Developing Performance Assessments for the National Reporting System, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Performance Assessments for Adult Education: Exploring the Measurement Issues: Report of a Workshop, 4 Quality Standards for Performance Assessments, Appendix C: Adult Education and Family Literacy Act FY 2001 Appropriation for State Grants. Estimating reliability is not a complex process, and appropriate procedures for this can be found in standard measurement textbooks (e.g., Crocker and Algina, 1986; Linn, Gronlund, and Davis, 1999; Nitko, 2001). Decisions about programs are usually based on the average scores of groups of students, rather than individuals. Attaining each of the above quality standards in any assessment carries with it certain costs or required resources. It may not be possible to determine the exact content coverage of a student’s assessment. Nevertheless, even though the qualities may be prioritized differently, all of them are relevant and need to be considered for every assessment. That is, if assessments are to be compared, an argument needs to be framed for claiming comparability, and evidence in support of this claim needs to be provided. the extent to which these different kinds of assessments are aligned with the NRS standards. Industry standards for processes, products, services, practices and integration. . The purpose of the NRC's workshop was to explore issues related to efforts to measure learning gains in adult basic education programs, with a focus on performance-based assessments. Sometimes a short form of a test is used for screening purposes, and its scores are calibrated with scores from the longer test. For a quote or more information, please contact sales here or call 1-877-909-ASTM. In most assessment situations, these resources will not be unlimited. Braun discussed a trade-off between validity and efficiency in the design of performance assessments. On the other hand, external assessments for accountability purposes, especially for individuals or small units, are relatively high stakes. Statistical moderation is used to align the scores from one assessment (test A) to scores from another assessment (test B). Product standards generally help the consumer by assuring him of uniformity in quality and performance. These potential differences in the assessments used in adult education programs mean that none of the statistical procedures for linking described above are, by themselves, likely to be possible or appropriate. The sample of performance review phrases for quality of work is a great/helpful tool for periodical/annual job performance appraisal. This situation may result in individual programs devising ways in which to “game” the system; for example, they might admit or test only those students who are near the top of an NRS scale level. For a discussion on reliability in the context of performance assessment see Crocker and Algina (1986); Dunbar, Koretz and Hoover (1991); NRC (1997); and Shavelson, Baxter and Gao (1993). Standards can be classified and formulated according to frames of references (used for setting and evaluating nursing care services) relating to nursing structure, process and outcome, because standard is a descriptive statement of desired level of performance against which to evaluate the quality of service structure, process or outcomes. Braun noted that the levels can also affect program evaluation. Second, there needs to be a pool of experts who are familiar with the content and context, the moderation procedure, and the criteria. If this is the case, the test developer or user will need to collect data from other larger and more representative groups. Publishers or states interested in developing assessments for adult education could be asked to state explicitly how the assessments relate to the framework, whether it is the NRS framework or the Equipped for the Future (EFF) framework, and to clearly document the measurement properties of their assessments. It is important to note that projecting test A onto test B produces a different result from projecting test B onto test A. About the Course. A comparison of the NRS levels with currently available standardized tests indicates that each NRS level spans approximately two grade level equivalents or student perfor-. Thus, there will be inevitable trade-offs in balancing the quality standards discussed above with what is feasible with the available resources. Allowing informed comparisons to be made with similar facilities. As mentioned previously, scoring performance assessment relies on human judgment. Setting Performance Standards Quality control standards should be realistic and equitable. Quality & Performance Measures Support to meet reporting requirements. One of the arguments made in support of performance assessments is that they are instructionally worthy, that is, they are worth teaching to (AERA et al., 1999:11-14). A more precise definition of 'Performance Quality Standard' is: Even though the reliabilities of group gain scores might be expected to be larger than those obtained from individual gain scores, the psychometric literature has pointed out a dilemma concerning the reliability of change scores (see the discussion in Harris, 1963, for example).1 One solution to the dilemma seems to be to focus on the accuracy of change measures, rather than on reliability coefficients in and of themselves. As described in Chapter 3, the design process involves the following: clear and detailed descriptions of the abilities to be assessed and of the characteristics of test takers, clear and detailed task specifications for the assessment, clear and standardized administrative. (See Comrey and Lee, 1992; Crocker and Algina, 1986; Cureton and D’Agostino, 1983; Gorsuch, 1983.). Thus, for a low-stakes classroom assessment for diagnosing students’ areas of strength and weakness, concerns for authenticity and educational relevance may be more important than more technical considerations, such as reliability, generalizability, and comparability. All three experts call for certain elements to be present if the social moderation process is to gain acceptance among stakeholders. Human resources are test designers, test writers, scorers, test administrators, data analysts, and clerical support. This potential lack of comparability prompted workshop participants to raise a number of concerns, including the following: the extent to which different programs and states define and cover the domain of adult literacy and numeracy education in the same way; the consistency with which different programs and states are interpreting the NRS levels of proficiency; the consistency, across programs and across states, in the kinds of tasks that are being used in performance assessments for accountability purposes; and. Maintenance decisions can be proactively reviewed as the season progresses, so that the desired quality is consistently achieved. Validation is a process that “involves accumulating evidence to provide a sound scientific basis for the proposed score interpretations” (AERA et al., 1999:9). Shot of a female scientist in a laboratory working with a … These qualities are reliability, validity, fairness, and practicality. A company making several similar products may standardize the products and equipment that help in production. An additional consideration in some situations is the extent to which evidence based on the relationship between test scores and other variables generalizes to another setting or use. In addition to these measurement issues, a number of other problems make it difficult to attribute score gains to the effects of the adult education program. Not a MyNAP member yet? Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? In most cases, standardization of assessments and administrative procedures will help ensure this. Assessments can be designed, developed, and used for different pur-. How can the reliability of the scores be estimated? Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. Equating, calibration, or statistical moderation is typically used in high-stakes accountability systems. 2. Like statistical moderation, it is used when examinees have taken two different assessments, and the goal is to align the scores from the two assessments. And the claims that are made in the validation argument will, in turn, determine the kinds of evidence that need to be collected. But, as Braun pointed out, two characteristics of the NRS scales create difficulties for their use in reporting gains in achieve-, ment. In most cases, however, low reliability can be traced directly to inadequate specifications in the design of the assessment or to failure to adhere to the design specifications in the creating and writing of assessment tasks.
2020 quality performance standards